Secession, Trump, and the Avoidability of Civil War

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civil

by David Swanson

The Governor of California has joked about building a wall all the way around his state if Donald Trump becomes president of the other 49. Secession would not be a joke had it not been given an undeserved bad name. It would not have that bad name but for our universal acceptance of imperialism and of an overly simplistic history of the U.S. Civil War.

Slavery in the U.S. South was widespread through World War II, Jim Crow through the 1960s, mass incarceration through the current day, and bitterness over the Civil War for the foreseeable future. Had the U.S. avoided civil war through a compromise that restricted slavery to existing slave states, or even through a compromise that allowed its possible expansion, or through simply allowing states to secede without war, the net result might have been good or bad. A few things are certain. The bitterness over the war would not exist, the 700,000 killed and many more injured and the incredible destruction of burned cities and fields would not have happened, and war would not have been glorified during the childhoods of the generation that would launch global U.S. imperialism at the dawn of the 20th century.

Very likely, in addition, slavery would have ended more quickly and more thoroughly than it did. Of course, that cannot be stated with certainty. But a nation half-slave, half-free that sought to work through problems without war would have very likely ended slavery through some form of compensated emancipation fairly quickly, bringing up the rear in a global process of liberation. Two or more smaller nations that sought to avoid war would have very likely also put an end to slavery in the one or more nations maintaining it, in part because of international and economic forces and the absence of a fugitive slave law, but also because smaller nations, all else equal, have an easier time achieving democracy. If we had smaller nations on this continent now, or if we were to choose to in the future, we would see the ability of people to bring popular pressure to bear on the governments soar.

Of course, it’s anything but an easy moral question whether 4 million people should be left enslaved another moment, or whether a nation should launch a war that might benefit them, though in the end it actually brought very limited and short-lived gains along with 700,000 killed and numerous disastrous results for decades to come. Not only are the results known only after the war, but the moral question has been invented after the war. Many in the North did not want a war to free slaves. A draft had to finally be created, as in the South as well, to compel people to kill and die. And those in power in Washington, including President-elect Lincoln, did not want war to free the slaves, only to prevent the expansion of slavery westward. When the South would not agree to restricting slavery to its current boundaries, Northern decision makers chose to launch a war over “union” — preferring slaughter to permitting the South, or some part of it, to leave.

Mark Tooley has published a book called The Peace That Almost Was: The Forgotten Story of the 1861 Washington Peace Conference and the Final Attempt to Avert the Civil War. It may remain a forgotten story for at least four reasons that leap out at me. First, Tooley adds in so much gossip-column fluff on clothes and parties and families and churches that it’s almost physically impossible to make it through his book if you’re looking only for what happened at the conference; this is truly a shame in a culture that already considers peace boring and war exciting. Second, Tooley concludes that the war was “inevitable” anyway, so why should you care? (And why did he give his book the title he did?) Third, Tooley almost completely overlooks the possibility that was most open to the North, namely allowing the South to leave in peace. Fourth, if you look into the details and consider how easily peace might have been chosen instead of war, you may feel a bit of discomfort in your mind. You may come up against the fact that many nations did end slavery without a civil war, and then have to start questioning whether in fact lots of other wars have also been “inevitable.”

A strong case could be made that the peace conference was begun too late. Seven states had already seceded. A conference on peaceful secession before secession, or a conference on a slavery compromise before secession, would have been easier. Oh and, by the way, the entire topic of the conference was slavery, not some other vague cause of “states rights” or anything of the sort. Nonetheless, the conference had numerous chances to reach an agreement, and in the end did reach an agreement — which Congress tossed aside in favor of war, and which Congress was assisted in tossing aside by some members of the peace conference who quickly badmouthed what they had done and opted for war. Among the latter was former U.S. President John Tyler who had chaired the peace conference before returning to Virginia and denouncing it.

Under consideration at the conference was not primarily slavery in the slave states, and certainly not ending it through compensated emancipation, as would be done in Washington, D.C., and numerous foreign countries. At issue was principally the expansion of slavery into the expanding western empire. Both sides insisted on imperial expansion to such an extent that it was truly beyond debate. If they’d been somehow made content with the current size of the country, that too could have resolved the dispute and averted war. So, in that peculiar sense, the Civil War was a war of empire. Delegates from both Northern and Southern states (quite a crowd of former senators and justices and the like) tended also to assume that their choices were either union or war, not peaceful division. A greater willingness to accept peaceful separation could also have averted war.

Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin sent no delegates. William Lloyd Garrison urged the desirability of war. Peace conference delegate Roger Baldwin of Connecticut advocated no compromise with slavery. Some Southern delegates urged no compromise with freedom, even while whining about threats to their own rights and comforts without a thought for those of the people enslaved in their states. The peace conference dragged on unpeacefully for 19 days, with Congress and the states holding their breath and holding off on actions.

Delegate Reverdy Johnson of Maryland made a case for compromise to both sides, urging the North to accept the deal of the old Missouri Compromise as preferable to the Dred Scott decision’s ruling that slavery could spread north of latitude 36°30′. Southern delegates were intent on not just preserving slavery but expanding it westward. President-elect Lincoln met with the peace conference and made clear that he would never stand for that and would prefer war; he would leave slavery alone where it existed but never allow it to expand.

After all variety of proposals were heard and rejected, ultimately a compromise was reached by the peace conference that reinstated the Missouri Compromise, required a majority of slave-state senators to approve of new territory, prohibited Congressional interference with slavery, banned the importation of enslaved people from abroad, and affirmed fugitive slave laws but also allowed for compensation paid to an owner to make an escaped slave free. Arguably this final agreement and other proposals that were rejected all propped up slavery more than simply allowing secession would have. The Senate and House quickly took up the peace conference agreement and rejected it. This was a Congress now missing any representatives from eight states, another reason why acting sooner might have succeeded.

During the course of the conference, some hints at another possible course were heard. General Winfield Scott said that dividing the country into four countries would be a “lesser evil” than war. Senator Salmon Chase of Ohio said, “The thing to be done is to let the South go.” Former Massachusetts Governor George Boutwell said that the union should be kept free of slavery or not kept. (But he warned ominously that the South could try to annex Mexico and other land, and block the North’s expansion to the Pacific. Again, it was all about empire.) Former New York Congressman Francis Granger raised the example of letting the South go as an act too cruel to be considered (so beneficial, apparently, was union with the North). George Summers of Virginia proposed a new nation of the border states, letting the Deep South and New England do their own things.

Victory, and thereby top praise in the history books, went to those who wanted war, including those who opposed slavery, those who demanded “union,” and those who insisted on expanding slavery far and wide.

But when secession is proposed in the future, we should not be rash in rejecting it. If the North had let the South go way back when, both countries might be much better off today. If, after the Civil War, someone had been able to turn the clock back four years, the North might have been very willing to let the South go. The South might also have been very willing to give up slavery, or at least its expansion westward, without the insanity and horror of a war. Secession may be an improvement on what we’ve got now. There are only so many immigrants Canada is going to take.

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  • The 14th Amendment brought us all down to the level of the slaves, in the same way as they have to bring Canada, and the US, down to the standard of living of Mexico to harmonize North American for the imposition of the the North American Union.

    • Gambeir Bay

      A very interesting viewpoint. A dictate of totalitarianism is that terrorization increases once people are defeated. It doesn’t decrease, it’s the reverse, and this is what the Nazi’s learned from the Communists and which Stalin and Mao both used extensively. I suppose 15 years hard labor for stealing a propaganda poster in North Korea is like a little dot on that. It’s easy to say that this general theme has been increasingly apparent as the gluttony of the exploiters becomes ever more apparent.

      • The theft of the poster was merely what preceded the colon of the hard labor sentence. The offender was acting under orders.

  • BasicRules

    The 2nd revolutionary war began when the Civil War ended .

  • Vows of Vengeance

    Civil War wasn’t about slaves. Why is it so many still don’t know that?

    • Because so many are still being indoctrinated in the public fool system.

      • Gambeir Bay

        Cruz is another one of these phonies.

        • Bettydchancellor3


          “my .friend’s mate Is getting 98$. HOURLY. on the internet.”….


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        • Julie Hargrove


          “my .friend’s mate Is getting 98$. HOURLY. on the internet.”….


          two days ago new Mc.Laren. F1 bought after earning 18,512$,,,this was my previous month’s paycheck ,and-a little over, 17k$ Last month ..3-5 h/r of work a days ..with extra open doors & weekly. paychecks.. it’s realy the easiest work I have ever Do.. I Joined This 7 months ago and now making over 87$, p/h.Learn. More right Hereo!714➤➤➤➤➤ http://GlobalSuperEmploymentVacanciesReportsJobs/GetPaid/98$hourly…. .❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:❖:❦:::::o!714…….

    • Public fool system.

    • Gambeir Bay

      1863 Banking Act wasn’t recognized until recently as the overthrow of the Republic by the Banksters.

    • Razedbywolvs

      Because everyone gets there history from a Rockefeller book.

    • Gil G

      In spite of Confederate leaders stating that slavery was a primary concern.

      • Helluva3ngineer

        …or Lincoln saying that if he could get away without freeing a single slave, he would.

      • Vows of Vengeance

        No you are wrong. They stated their concern of loss of states and citizens rights. And a over powering Fed government. And look what we have now.

  • Mike

    Please let Trump win, commiefornia needs to get out of the USA.

    • Gambeir Bay

      What they need is US Marshall’s to go in and arrest all those people freely abridging the Bills of Rights and to have them stand trial for high treason. That’s what’s needed.

    • BeAPatriot

      No we just need the Liberals to leave cali

      Perhaps we deport them with the illegals and rapefugees they love so much….

      No way they will put up with the ignorant liberal mental disease

  • Gambeir Bay

    California is already in full rebellion with self appointed dictators outlawing the civil rights of people protected under the Bills of Rights and with the government doing nothing. Same thing in Washington State and in other states where little stooges are making their bids for power by attempting to steal the property and rights of the citizens. We got thugs trying to invade our own homes; to tell us how you have to store your own possessions and now these crooks are trying to make it illegal to even pass those personal items onto your heirs. It don’t get much more communist than that. If some sense isn’t restored soon than civil war is assured.

  • ‘it’s anything but an easy moral question whether…a nation should launch a war that might benefit them…’

    Actually, it’s a very easy moral question as the ends NEVER justify the means. Or, as Huxley said…

    ‘The end cannot justify the means, for the simple and obvious reason that the means employed determine the nature of the ends produced.’

  • Gambeir Bay

    According to people like John Gatto, slavery was already dead and the reason was that the white women would no longer put up with it; the slave women’s mulatto children being of obvious linage. That’s kind of hard to explain to a 4th grader so we have this abortion of an excuse for American History in the planned education which is all neo-con written and produced by such institutions as the Federalist Society.

  • roger

    Thomas DiLorenzo. Read his historical accounts of the real Lincoln……

  • ExecutorOffice

    http://www.serendipity.li/jsmill/us_corporation.htm uSA or USA? The South seceded didn’t they? Back around 1861? Then the unlawful corporate USA INC was barfed up

  • Enough is enough

    If California builds a wall around its self. Then most of us win twice. Trump becomes president and we don’t have to deal with California anymore. Win win.

  • Helluva3ngineer

    All wars are Bankers’ wars.

  • I forgot

    Governor Moonbeam should build a wall around California!

  • BeAPatriot

    I think machines, robotics and AI will combine to enslave mankind. They will not end slavery but transition everyone to a common type of slavery.

    One morning mankind will awake and realize they cannot drive, work, hunt, fish, cook. They have no idea about survival or about the lands just a few miles outside the city they dwell in…

    No whips and chains (darn!) needed, they are enslaved to their sloth and exist on being fed, housed, clothed by the government and its machine. If its not shaped like a pizza or a nugget its not food.

    Think about it. How many are on welfare? food stamps or other subsidies?

    Once the jobs are gone, slavery accelerates. Not that jobs aren’t a different slavery they are, however they are the norm after Americans stopped being mostly entrepreneurs.

    All the slavery begins with the banks, printing of fiat money. To regain freedom we need to dissolve the system and control and deal with it from there. Kill “free trade” and learn how to create value directly instead of being harnessed to a job at a company or worse, government.

  • Jon Geissinger

    The powers that be are running the spin engine over time now that there is a real opposition to business as normal. God help them if they cannot find a way to stop the Trump Train from making it to the station. THEY MUST HAVE THE STATUS QUO! GREED, corruption, control. They will spread their FUD thick now. People like Soros, Koch brothers, and all the other powers that be will be spending their money on the minions to go out and cause trouble so that they can send in their paid goons to break up the troublemakers.
    Too bad 99.9999% of the Sheeple have no clue beyond the end of their fingertips. The PTB had a good practice run in the Ukraine. And that cluster F is still in full swing! The east is trying to stay away from Kiev’s corruption, so they are being pounded with artillery and mortars. Replace most any bastion of constitutional patriotism in the US with the east of the Ukraine, and then Kiev with Washington DC, and you’ll have the news tomorrow.

    All this being said, what has me puzzled is: What is their end game? What do the PTB expect their new nirvana to look like?